Most areas in Punjab experience extreme weather with foggy winters, often accompanied by rain. Taran Taran District Map The state of Punjab measuring 50362 sq km in area is divided into 22 districts. Chund railway station (Urdu: چنڈ ریلوے اسٹیشن ‎) is located in Pakistan.

The landscape is amongst the most heavily irrigated on earth and canals can be found throughout the province. Of the five great rivers of Punjab, four course through Pakistan's Punjab province. Alexander invested many troops, eventually killing 17,000 Cathians in this battle, and the city of Sagala (present-day Sialkot) was razed to the ground. Punjab's landscape consists mostly consists of fertile alluvial plains of the Indus River and its four major tributaries in Pakistan, the Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, and Sutlej rivers which traverse Punjab north to south – the fifth of the "five waters" of Punjab, the Beas River, lies exclusively in the Indian state of Punjab. The Indo-Greeks were involved with local faiths, particularly with Buddhism, but also with Hinduism'. Folklore songs, ballads, epics and romances are generally written and sung in the various Punjabi dialects. Western Punjab was assimilated into the new country of Pakistan, while East Punjab became a part of modern-day India. By mid-February the temperature begins to rise; springtime weather continues until mid-April, when the summer heat sets in. Chhab railway station (Urdu: چهب ریلوے اسٹیشن ‎) is located in Pakistan. Barelvi's movement weakened after there was infighting with his Pashtun followers and in a major battle near the town of Balakot in 1831, Syed Ahmad Barelvi and Shah Ismail Shaheed with volunteer Muslims were defeated and killed by the Sikh Army. The city of Sirkap founded by Demetrius combines Greek and Indian influences without signs of segregation between the two cultures.

It also shares borders with the Indian states of Punjab, Rajasthan, and the Indian-administered territory of Jammu and Kashmir. In Jhelum 35 British soldiers of the HM XXIV regiment were killed by the local resistance during the Indian Rebellion of 1857.[53]. [41] During their rule, Hinduism revived itself and the Buddhist civilisation in Gandhara declined. The hardest part of the summer is then over, but cooler weather does not come until late October. [14] Sialkot District in the prosperous northern part of the province has a poverty rate of 5.63%,[63] while Rajanpur District in the poorer south has a poverty rate of 60.05%.[18]. The incidence of poverty differs between the different regions of Punjab. Univ, GNDU, Symbiosis), "Rigveda 1.126:7, English translation by Ralph TH Griffith", Advanced Study in the History of Modern India: 1707 – 1813 – Jaswant Lal Mehta – Google Books, The Fall of the Moghul Empire of Hindustan, "Now or Never. Radha Kumud Mookerji (2nd ed. Since the 1950s, Punjab industrialised rapidly. [4] This region contains thirteen districts of the Pakistani province of Punjab, including the cities of Lahore, Faisalabad, Gujranwala, Gujrat, and Sialkot. ", "Thus the various centres of learning in different parts of the country became affiliated, as it were, to the educational centre, or the central university, of Taxila which exercised a kind of intellectual suzerainty over the wide world of letters in India. In 1799 Ranjit Singh, ruler of the Sukerchakia Misl, defeated the Bhangi Misl and captured Lahore thereby proclaiming himself as the "Maharaja of Punjab" at the age of 21. [93][94], Basant is a seasonal festival and is celebrated as a spring festival of kites. Average rainfall annual ranges between 96 cm sub-mountain region and 46 cm in the plains. Dedicated to Shiva, the temple has, according to Hindu legend, existed since the days of Mahābhārata and the Pandava brothers spent a substantial part of their exile at the site and later Krishna himself laid the foundation of this temple. Punjabi is the provincial language of Punjab but is not given any official recognition in the Constitution of Pakistan at the national level.

Punjab was part of the Indus Valley Civilization, more than 4000 years ago.[32]. The main site in Punjab was the city of Harrapa. Heat records were broken in Multan in June 1993, when the mercury was reported to have risen to 54 °C. Tinoka railway station (Urdu: تینوکا ریلوے اسٹیشن ‎) is located in Pakistan. [2] People of the Majha region are given the demonym "Mājhī". In Pakistani Punjab, non-tribal social distinctions are primarily based on traditional occupations such as blacksmiths or artisans, as opposed to rigid social stratifications. Gondophares, founder of the Indo-Parthian kingdom, was a ruler of Seistan in what is today eastern Iran, probably a vassal or relative of the Apracarajas. A barrage on Panjnad has been erected; it provides irrigation channels for Punjab and Sindh provinces south of the Sutlej and east of the Indus rivers. New factories were established in Lahore, Sargodha, Multan, Gujrat, Gujranwala, Sialkot, Wah and Rawalpindi. If one were to go across the Punjab starting from Delhi and to Afghanistan, the rivers are in this order. Punjab witnessed major battles between the armies of India and Pakistan in the wars of 1965 and 1971. Ranjit Singh modernized his Sikh Khalsa army by using Franco-British principles and by employing veterans of the Napoleonic Wars to train the infantry in European style. June and July are oppressively hot. Punjab during the Mahabharata times was known as Panchanada. The region was known to the ancient Greeks as Pentapotamia, meaning the "region of five rivers,"[27] while the Sanskrit name for the region, as mentioned in the Ramayana and Mahabharata, was Panchanada which means "Land of the Five Rivers. Although official estimates rarely place the temperature above 46 °C, newspaper sources claim that it reaches 51 °C and regularly carry reports about people who have succumbed to the heat. The Sikhs became a formidable military force after the death of Aurangzeb in 1707 and challenged the Mughals and later the Durrani Afghans for power in Punjab. It also hosts major military bases such as at Sargodha and Rawalpindi. Mari Indus railway station (Urdu: مری انڈس ریلوے اسٹیشن ‎) is located in Pakistan. [3] The most populous city in the area is Lahore on the Pakistani side and Amritsar on the Indian side of the border. The Kushan period is considered the Golden Period of Gandhara. These are the folk tales of Mirza Sahiban, Sayful Muluk, Yusuf Zulekha, Heer Ranjha, Sohni Mahiwal, Dulla Bhatti, and Sassi Punnun.

Exhibitions and annual horse shows in all districts and a national horse and cattle show at Lahore are held with the official patronage.

Despite the lack of a coastline, Punjab is the most industrialised province of Pakistan;[13] its manufacturing industries produce textiles, sports goods, heavy machinery, electrical appliances, surgical instruments, vehicles, auto parts, metals, sugar mill plants, aircraft, cement, agricultural machinery, bicycles and rickshaws, floor coverings, and processed foods. Despite past animosities, the rural masses in Punjab's farms continue to use the Hindu calendar for planting and harvesting. Punjab was part of both classical Western Eurasian empires including the Achaemenid, Macedonian, Kushan, Greco-Bactrian, Indo-Greek and Hindu Shahi empires, as well as Indo-Gangetic (North Indian) empires such as that of the Maurya and Gupta.

[1] It extends north from the right banks[note 1] of the river Beas, and reaches as far north as the river Jhelum. Missan Kalar railway station (Urdu: مسان کلر ریلوے اسٹیشن ‎, Punjabi: مسان کلر ریلوے اسٹیشن ) is located in Punjab, Pakistan. The part of the Punjab now in Pakistan once formed a major region of British Punjab, and was home to a large minority population of Punjabi Hindus and Sikhs up to 1947 apart from the Muslim majority. Sukho railway station (Urdu: سکھو ریلوے اسٹیشن ‎) is located in Pakistan. ; Background paper for the Education for all global monitoring report 2006: literacy for life; 2005", "Rural women uphold Pakistan's literacy rate", Punjabi Parchar spreads colours of love at Visakhi Mela, "Asthma treatment in Pakistani salt mine",,_Pakistan&oldid=986032455, States and territories established in 1970, Punjabi-speaking countries and territories, Articles with dead external links from July 2018, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Punjabi-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2015, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2017, Articles needing additional references from February 2019, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2015, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2016, Articles with Encyclopædia Britannica links, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.

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